Solutions to the urgent challenges of environment degradation, resource depletion, growth in population, and cities, and in energy use, will rely heavily on nanoscience.1 New mindsets are needed if we are to solve these critical problems expeditiously. Nature has shown us how the complexity inherent in nanostructures enables harmony with the environment. Safety must be a concern and some nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, and some uses of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles, may turn out to be hazardous in specific contexts. Scientists need a good overview to rationally handle recent reports about nanotechnology, claiming that the hazards to humans and the environment outweigh the benefits. An example is that just out from Friends of the Earth.2 Such cases are built around a limited set of problems, and ignore solutions, using mainly opinion-type articles as references interspersed with a few regular scientific articles. They would not survive peer review but may appear to nonexperts to cover the whole field, while ignoring the big picture. An intrinsic feature of nanotechnology, as nature has also “discovered” is diversity, so when problems arise, safe alternatives evolve. A scientific approach to identifying, avoiding, and managing technological risk has always been central to progress and will be for nanosystems.