The growth and blossoming of the nanoengineering field over the past 50 years has indeed proved that there is plenty of room at the bottom. Engineered two-dimensional nanostructures have become part of our everyday life, such as the CMOS chips in our electronic devices, the high-mobility transistors in our cell phones, and giant tunneling magnetoresistive heads for the disk drive in our computer and digital video recorders. In order to make products ever more widely used and low cost, nanoengineering in all three dimensions has become critical to many applications. Mature technologies such as logic, memory, and data storage have been rapidly thrust into the sub-100-nm regime. Existing processes of record have been extended well beyond the ranges deemed feasible or reliable. New technologies such as sensors, systems on a chip, biotechnology, photonics, photovoltaics, molecular electronics, and optics are emerging. The upcoming synthesized nanomaterials, nanotubes, and nanowires, offer extremely attractive physical features and great opportunities. Continuing improvements in the design and fabrication of miniature optical elements have driven the development of micro/nano/quantum-scale optical and optoelectronic elements in ever more diverse applications. Application areas include telecommunications, data communications, consumer electronics, microwave photonics, optical computing, neural networks, optical storage, information display, optical imaging, printing, optical sensing, optical scanning, renewable energy harvest and storage, medical diagnosis, and chemical/biological sensing. The upcoming nanotechnologies present new opportunities and challenges in materials processing, device design, and integration. Drivers for commercial deployment include functionality, space, performance, reliability, and cost, as well as energy independence and climate change mitigation.