Special Section on Nanophotonics in Europe

Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices

[+] Author Affiliations
Keith A. Serrels

Ultrafast Optics Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

Euan Ramsay

Waves and Fields Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

Paul A. Dalgarno

Nano-Optics Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

Brian Gerardot

Nano-Optics Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

John O'Connor, Robert H. Hadfield

Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

Richard Warburton

Nano-Optics Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH14 4AS United Kingdom

Derryck Reid

Ultrafast Optics Group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS United Kingdom

J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021854 (December 19, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.3068652
History: Received September 22, 2008; Revised December 12, 2008; Accepted December 12, 2008; December 19, 2008; Online December 19, 2008
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Abstract

Solid immersion lens (SIL) microscopy combines the advantages of conventional microscopy with those of near-field techniques, and is being increasingly adopted across a diverse range of technologies and applications. A comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly expanding subject is therefore increasingly relevant. Important benefits are enabled by SIL-focusing, including an improved lateral and axial spatial profiling resolution when a SIL is used in laser-scanning microscopy or excitation, and an improved collection efficiency when a SIL is used in a light-collection mode, for example in fluorescence micro-spectroscopy. These advantages arise from the increase in numerical aperture (NA) that is provided by a SIL. Other SIL-enhanced improvements, for example spherical-aberration-free sub-surface imaging, are a fundamental consequence of the aplanatic imaging condition that results from the spherical geometry of the SIL. Beginning with an introduction to the theory of SIL imaging, the unique properties of SILs are exposed to provide advantages in applications involving the interrogation of photonic and electronic nanostructures. Such applications range from the sub-surface examination of the complex three-dimensional microstructures fabricated in silicon integrated circuits, to quantum photoluminescence and transmission measurements in semiconductor quantum dot nanostructures.

© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Keith A. Serrels ; Euan Ramsay ; Paul A. Dalgarno ; Brian Gerardot ; John O'Connor, et al.
"Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices", J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 021854 (December 19, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3068652


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