Research Papers

Metal-based nanorods as molecule-specific contrast agents for reflectance imaging in 3D tissues

[+] Author Affiliations
David J. Javier, Nitin Nitin, Darren M. Roblyer, Rebecca Richards-Kortum

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77054

J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 023506 (April 23, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2927370
History: Received January 4, 2008; Revised April 14, 2008; Accepted April 14, 2008; April 23, 2008; Online April 23, 2008
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Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Anisotropic metal-based nanomaterials have been proposed as potential contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance. We evaluated the contrast properties of gold, silver, and gold-silver hybrid nanorods for molecular imaging applications in three-dimensional biological samples. We used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to predict the contrast properties of different types of nanorods embedded in biological model systems of increasing complexity. The predicted contrast properties were then validated using wide-field and high-resolution imaging. Results demonstrated that silver nanorods yield images with higher positive-contrast than gold nanorods; however, it is more difficult to synthesize silver nanorods which are homogeneous in shape and size. Gold-silver hybrid nanorods combine the homogeneous synthesis of gold nanorods with the higher scattering properties of silver nanorods. The spectroscopic and imaging results demonstrated that the image contrast properties that can be achieved with anisotropic nanomaterials depend strongly on the material composition, mode of imaging, presence of targeting molecules, and the biological environment. We also found that gold, silver, and gold-silver hybrid nanorods are stable and biocompatible sources of positive and absorptive contrast for use in reflectance molecular imaging and are promising for future clinical translation.

References

S. Eustis. and M.A. El-Sayed, "Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: Noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209-217 (2006).
A.J. Haes, and R.P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596-10604 (2002).
K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999-2004 (2003).
I.H. El-Sayed, X.H. Huang, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5(5), 829-834 (2005).
N. Nitin, D.J. Javier, D.M. Roblyer, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Wide-field and high-resolution reflectance imaging of gold and silver nanospheres," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051505/1-051505/10 (2007).
Z. Cheng, J. Levi, Z. Xiong, O. Gheysens, S. Keren, X. Chen, and S.S. Gambhir, "Near-infrared fluorescent deoxyglucose analogue for tumor optical imaging in cell culture and living mice," Bioconjugate Chem. 17(3), 662-669 (2006).
K.E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M.E. Mawad, M.A. Barry, and E.M. Sevick-Muraca, "Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017/1-024017/9 (2007).
J.W. Chen, S.M. Querol, A. Bagdanov Jr., and R. Weissleder, "Imaging of myeloperoxidase in mice by using novel amplifiable paramagnetic substrates," Radiol. 240(2), 473-81 (2006).
P.K. Jain, K.S. Lee, I.H. El-Sayed, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238-7248 (2006).
C.J. Murphy, T.K. Sau, A.M. Gole, C.J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S.E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, "Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: synthesis, assembly, and optical applications," J .Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 13857-13870 (2005).
C. Yu, L. Varghese, and J. Irudayaraj, "Surface modification of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanorods to make molecular probes," Langmuir 23(17), 9114-9119 (2007).
D.I. Gittins, and F. Caruso, "Tailoring the polyelectrolyte coating of metal nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 105(29), 6846-6852 (2001).
H. Liao, and J.H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17(18), 4636-4641 (2005).
B. Nikoobakht, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method," Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957-1962 (2003).
N.R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C.J. Murphy, "Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanorods and nanowires of controllable aspect ratio," Chem. Commun. 7, 617-618 (2001).
M.Z. Liu, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and optical characterization of Au/Ag core/shell nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 108(19), 5882-5888 (2004).
A. Gole, and C.J. Murphy, "Polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and immobilization," Chem. Mater. 17(6), 1325-1330 (2005).
D.M. Roblyer, C. Kurachi,, K. Sokolov, A.K. El-Naggar, M.D. Williams, A.M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum," A multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. in press. (Mar/Apr 2008 issue).
C.J. Orendorff, and C.J. Murphy, "Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990-3994 (2006).
T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072-81 (2005).
T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 307-313 (2003).
© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

David J. Javier ; Nitin Nitin ; Darren M. Roblyer and Rebecca Richards-Kortum
"Metal-based nanorods as molecule-specific contrast agents for reflectance imaging in 3D tissues", J. Nanophoton. 2(1), 023506 (April 23, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2927370


Figures

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References

S. Eustis. and M.A. El-Sayed, "Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: Noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209-217 (2006).
A.J. Haes, and R.P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596-10604 (2002).
K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Res. 63(9), 1999-2004 (2003).
I.H. El-Sayed, X.H. Huang, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5(5), 829-834 (2005).
N. Nitin, D.J. Javier, D.M. Roblyer, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Wide-field and high-resolution reflectance imaging of gold and silver nanospheres," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051505/1-051505/10 (2007).
Z. Cheng, J. Levi, Z. Xiong, O. Gheysens, S. Keren, X. Chen, and S.S. Gambhir, "Near-infrared fluorescent deoxyglucose analogue for tumor optical imaging in cell culture and living mice," Bioconjugate Chem. 17(3), 662-669 (2006).
K.E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M.E. Mawad, M.A. Barry, and E.M. Sevick-Muraca, "Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017/1-024017/9 (2007).
J.W. Chen, S.M. Querol, A. Bagdanov Jr., and R. Weissleder, "Imaging of myeloperoxidase in mice by using novel amplifiable paramagnetic substrates," Radiol. 240(2), 473-81 (2006).
P.K. Jain, K.S. Lee, I.H. El-Sayed, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238-7248 (2006).
C.J. Murphy, T.K. Sau, A.M. Gole, C.J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S.E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, "Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: synthesis, assembly, and optical applications," J .Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 13857-13870 (2005).
C. Yu, L. Varghese, and J. Irudayaraj, "Surface modification of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanorods to make molecular probes," Langmuir 23(17), 9114-9119 (2007).
D.I. Gittins, and F. Caruso, "Tailoring the polyelectrolyte coating of metal nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B 105(29), 6846-6852 (2001).
H. Liao, and J.H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17(18), 4636-4641 (2005).
B. Nikoobakht, and M.A. El-Sayed, "Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method," Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957-1962 (2003).
N.R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C.J. Murphy, "Wet chemical synthesis of silver nanorods and nanowires of controllable aspect ratio," Chem. Commun. 7, 617-618 (2001).
M.Z. Liu, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and optical characterization of Au/Ag core/shell nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 108(19), 5882-5888 (2004).
A. Gole, and C.J. Murphy, "Polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and immobilization," Chem. Mater. 17(6), 1325-1330 (2005).
D.M. Roblyer, C. Kurachi,, K. Sokolov, A.K. El-Naggar, M.D. Williams, A.M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum," A multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. in press. (Mar/Apr 2008 issue).
C.J. Orendorff, and C.J. Murphy, "Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990-3994 (2006).
T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072-81 (2005).
T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 307-313 (2003).

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