Interest in carbon and especially in nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond [Bokova-Sirosh et al.]) and similar materials (MoS2, Si-N clusters [Lalayan, Israelyan, and Movsesyan]) is growing with time. The present special section demonstrates the achievements not only in synthesis and studies of fundamental properties of nanocarbon, but also in different applications of this material: in photonics (Mikheev et al., Vella et al., and Noury et al.), field emission (Kleshch et al. and Gorodetskiy et al.), composites (Plyushch et al.), sensors (Sysoev et al. and Kondrashov et al.), waveguide-resonance gratings (Kumar et al.), supramolecular organization (Alvarez et al.), solar energy conversion (Lobiak et al.), probes for atomic force microscopy (Tuyakova, Obraztsova, and Ismagilov). Different synthesis and modification techniques are used for formation of nanocarbon materials with novel properties: liquid phase exfoliation (Pavlova et al.), carbon precipitation in metals (Shvets and Obraztsov), gyrotron discharge (Batanov et al.), plasma enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition (Ismagilov et al.), filling nanotubes with CuCl (Eremina, Fedotov, and Obraztsova, and Eremin, Tonkikh, and Kudryashova), doping graphene with nitrogen (Sedelnikova, Bulusheva, and Okortub, and Pereyaslavtsev et al.). New nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes are reported: double-wall carbon nanotubes (Levshov et al.), one-dimensional carbon chains (Arutyunyan, Fedotov, and Kononenko), graphene nanoribbons formed inside nanotubes from coronene molecules (Chernov et al.).